Miguel B. Araújo is a world leader in the study of climate change effects on biodiversity. His research has been critical to the establishment of current best practices for modeling biodiversity change through time and space and for assessing the broader consequences of human activities in the natural world. His research involves three overarching questions: 1) how did past climate changes affect the distribution and diversity of life on earth? 2) how might current and future environmental changes affect biodiversity? 3) how can biodiversity be conserved given current and future challenges? To address these questions, he pioneered integration of global and regional climate predictions with land cover maps and species distributions databases. More recently, he incorporated descriptions of behavioural and physiological traits of species, molecular phylogenies, and the fossil record into geographical analysis of diversity and models of species distributions. Most of his research involves statistical analyses of ecological data, including data mining, modelling, and mathematical simulations, but large-scale experiments are now being used for testing models and theory on the biogeography of species distributions and interactions.